Hantaviruses are viruses transmitted by rodents to humans, they cause a deadly rare viral infection. It has two types and each type has specific rodent hosts that transmit the virus through their droplets in human beings. In this article, we will know more about the incubation period, symptoms, transmission and mortality rates.

Hantavirus: symptoms, treatment & prevention

Types:

It has two types:

1- Old world hantaviruses:

They cause HFRS ( hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome), this type exists mainly in Asia and Europe.

2- New world hantaviruses:

They cause HPS ( hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), this type exists in the Americas.

Transmission:

Each type is transmitted by a specific rodent species, it is spread through the aerosolized virus shed through rodents saliva, urine and feces.

Incubation period:

For hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is not accurately known, but symptoms may develop from 1 to 8 weeks after exposure to infected rodent droplets. In the case of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, it takes form 1 to 2 weeks and sometimes the incubation period increases to 8 weeks.

Risk factors:

Anyone in contact with rodents dropping is at risk even healthy people.

Mortality rate:

HPS has a high mortality rate up to 38%, but in the case of HFRS, it depends on the virus causing disease. If the Hantaan virus caused the HFRS mortality rate from 5: 15 % but if it is caused by the Pumala virus the mortality rate is less than 1 %.

HPS (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) Symptoms:

A) Symptoms after infection:

1- Fever.

2- Fatigue.

3- Muscule pain.

4- Headache.

5- Nausea and vomiting.

6- Dizziness sensation.

7- Diarrhea.

8- Abdominal pain.

B) 2nd level of symptoms:

After 4 to 10 days of infection, other symptoms appear it includes:

1- Breath shortness.

2- Coughing.

3- Fluids fill the lungs.

HFRS ( hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) symptoms:

A) Early symptoms:

1- Back pain.

2- Abdominal pain.

3- fever.

4- Severe headache.

5- vision blurred.

6- nausea.

7- eye inflammation.

8- Face flushing.

B) Late symptoms:

1- Shock.

2- Low blood pressure.

3- Vascular leakage.

4- Acute renal failure.

Hantaviruses: symptoms, treatment & prevention

Diagnosis:

Unfortunately, HPS early diagnosis is very difficult because early symptoms are similar to influenza symptoms. If you experience the previously mentioned symptoms and you exposed to any rodents droplets you should go to the hospital for medical help. On the opposite side, HFRS can be diagnosed by laboratory tests such as immunohistochemical staining and microscopic examination.

Treatment:

A) HPS treatment:

Actually there is no treatment or vaccine but the infected person put in the intensive care for oxygen and intubation. If you went to the hospital early you will be rescued.

B) HFRS treatment: The patient undergoes supportive therapy includes dialysis, hydration, electrolyte level management and low blood pressure treatment.

Prevention:

1- Avoid contact with rodents droplets. 2- Store your food well. 3- Wash food cans well with soap and water. 3- Seal any holes rates may use them to enter your place. 4- Wash your hands before food preparation or eating. 5- Put traps in your place if you are living on a farm or a place near rodents nest.

To understand the difference between coronavirus, influenza virus and Hantairuses symptoms and complications please follow those links:

https://nafies.com/influenza-signs-treatment-complications/

https://nafies.com/coronavirus-causes-signs-protection/

To know precautions during infectious diseases outbreaks please follow this link:

https://nafies.com/precautions-through-epidemic-diseases-outbreak/

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