Hypertension: definition, risk factors and complications

Hypertension is a chronic disease, many people may suffer from high blood pressure without symptoms but during medical check they discover it. 600 million patients around the world diagnosed as hypternsive patients. About 3 million patients die annually beause of high blood pressure complications. In this article we will explain more information about high blood pressure.

Definition:

It is high persistance arterial blood pressure more than normal for the patient age. It is also called high blood pressure (HBP), it is a blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher.

Hypertension symptoms:

Headache.

Tennitus.

Nausea.

Dizziness.

Vertigo.

Blood pressure classification:

ClassficationSystolic blood pressureDiastolic blood pressure
Normal< 120< 80
pre hypertension120 – 13980 – 89
Stage 1 hypertension140 – 15990 – 99
stage 2 hypertension≥ 160≥ 100

Blood pressure levels classification accoding to WHO:

ClassSystolic Biastolic
Optimal< 120 < 80
Normal< 130 < 85
High normal130 – 13985 – 89
Mild ( grade 1)140 – 159 90 – 99
moderate ( grade 2)160 – 179100 – 109
Severe ( grade 3)≥ 180 ≥ 110
Isolated systolic hypertension140 – 149

Hypertension risk factors:

1 – age.

2 – gender.

3 – genes.

4 – smoking.

5 – Physical inactivity.

6 – obesity.

7 – Alcohol consumption.

8 – hormone replacement therapy.

9 – Contraceptives.

10 – pre exsiting cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac arrythemia. For more information about cardiac arrythemia do not forget to check these articles: https://nafies.com/cardiac-arrhythmia-definition-causes-symptoms/ , https://nafies.com/cardiac-arrhythmia-diagnosis-treatment-prevention/.

11- renal diseases.

12 – diabetes mellitus.

13 – high serum lipids.

Isolated systolic hypertension :

Elevated systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg in conjunction with normal diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg. Isolated systolic hypertension is more important than disystolic blood preasure. It is more important because patients may suffer from serious complications.

Secondary high blood pressure causes:

1- Renal diseases:

Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis.

Chronic polysystic kidney.

Pyelonephritis.

Renal artery stenosis.

2 – Endocine diseases:

Primary aldosteronism.

Pheochromocytoma.

Hyperthyrodism.

Diabetes Millets.

3- Vascular :

Aorta contraction.

4 – Cerebral diseases:

Brain tumers.

Bulbar poliomyelitis.

5 – Miscellaneous:

Oral contraceptives.

NSAID’S.

High blood pressure complications :

1 – Central nervous system complications:

Strokes and encephalopathy.

2 – Retina complications :

Optic disk swelling, exudates and gradual diminishing of visual acuity.

3 – Renal complications :

Protein uria , progressive renal failure, malignant hypertension and nephrosclerosis.

4 – Cadiovascular system complications:

Heart failure, aortic aneurysm, myocardial infarction and arteriosclerosis.

For more information about blood pressure do not forget to check this article : https://nafies.com/blood-pressure-definition-contol-and-factors-affecting-it/

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